OKARA: Jurnal Bahasa dan Sastra 2022-05-29T20:24:25+07:00 Mr. Abd. Ghofur Open Journal Systems <div style="text-align: justify;"> <p style="line-height: 160%;"><span style="font-size: small; text-align: justify;"> <strong>OKARA: Jurnal Bahasa dan Sastra or Journal of Languages and Literature</strong> (<span style="text-align: justify; font-size: small; font-family: sans-serif;"><span style="color: #007eac; font-size: small; font-family: sans-serif;"><span style="color: #007eac;"><a style="text-decoration: none;" href="" target="_blank" rel="license noopener"><strong>P-ISSN: 1907-624X</strong></a></span></span></span> and <span style="text-align: justify; font-size: small; font-family: sans-serif;"><span style="color: #007eac; font-size: small; font-family: sans-serif;"><span style="color: #007eac;"><a style="text-decoration: none;" href="" target="_blank" rel="license noopener"><strong>E-ISSN: 2442-305X</strong></a></span></span></span>) is a peer-reviewed journal published biannually by the Center of Language development of Institut Agama Islam Negeri (IAIN) Madura, in collaboration with ELITE Association Indonesia. Accredited <span style="color: #007eac;"><a style="text-decoration: none;" href="" target="_blank" rel="license noopener"><strong>Sinta 2 / Grade "B"</strong></a></span></span> <span style="font-size: small; text-align: justify;">by the Directorate General of Higher Education, Research, and Technology of the Republic of Indonesia under <span style="text-align: justify; font-size: small; font-family: sans-serif;"><span style="color: #007eac; font-size: small; font-family: sans-serif;"><span style="color: #007eac;"><strong style="text-decoration: none;"><a style="text-decoration: none;" href="" target="_blank" rel="license noopener">Decree No. 164/E/KPT/2021</a>.</strong></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="line-height: 160%;"><span style="font-size: small; text-align: justify;"> The journal publishes research papers in the field of linguistics, literature, and language teaching, such as fundamentals of ELT, the sound of the word of the language, structure, meaning, language and gender, sociolinguistic, language philosophy, history of linguistic, origin/evolution, experimental linguistics, phonology, syntax, endangered minority language, language and nature, the communicative strategy of teaching, linguistic anthropology, the psychology of language, field methods in linguistic, interactive of language teaching.</span></p> <p style="line-height: 160%;"><span style="font-size: small; text-align: justify;"> This journal is an open-access journal which means that all content is freely available without any charge to the user(s) or his/her institution. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author.</span></p> <p style="line-height: 160%;"><span style="font-size: small; text-align: justify;"> OKARA has become a <span style="text-align: justify; font-size: small; font-family: sans-serif;"><span style="color: #007eac; font-size: small; font-family: sans-serif;"><span style="color: #007eac;"><a style="text-decoration: none;" href="" target="_blank" rel="license noopener"><strong>Crossref Member</strong></a></span></span></span> since 2015, therefore all articles published by OKARA will have unique DOI numbers. OKARA has also been reviewed by <span style="text-align: justify; font-size: small; font-family: sans-serif;"><span style="color: #007eac; font-size: small; font-family: sans-serif;"><span style="color: #007eac;"><a style="text-decoration: none;" href="" target="_blank" rel="license noopener"><strong>ACI (ASEAN Citation Index)</strong></a></span></span></span><span style="text-align: justify; font-size: small; font-family: sans-serif;"><span style="color: #007eac; font-size: small; font-family: sans-serif;"><span style="color: #007eac;"><strong style="text-decoration: none;">&nbsp;</strong></span></span></span>steering committee, and it has been advised to be <span style="text-align: justify; font-size: small; font-family: sans-serif;"><span style="color: #007eac; font-size: small; font-family: sans-serif;"><span style="color: #007eac;"><a style="text-decoration: none;" href="" target="_blank" rel="license noopener"><strong>accepted</strong></a></span></span></span> for ACI inclusion on November 1, 2018.</span></p> </div> An Evaluation of Indonesian Textbooks Using Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy 2022-05-29T20:24:23+07:00 Denda Rinjaya Sisilia Setiawati Halimi <p align="justify"><em>Implementing higher-order thinking skills into teaching-learning practice has become a priority for any teaching program anywhere today. This study aims to evaluate two books of BIPA (Bahasa Indonesia bagi Penutur Asing) 7 Sahabatku Indonesia (2019) based on the Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy (RBT). The content analysis approach was used in this study to analyze research data in the form of instructions and questions classified using the RBT category. First, the analysis results showed that the instructions and questions in the two BIPA books were dominated by lower-order thinking skills (‘understanding' and 'remembering'). Second, although lower-order thinking skills dominated the instructions and questions in the two BIPA books, this study revealed that the majority of the instructions and questions classified as lower-order thinking skills in both textbooks analyzed can be changed into higher-order thinking skills. The findings of this study infer that the majority of instructions and questions in the BIPA 7 Sahabatku Indonesia need to be revised to encourage higher-order thinking skills-oriented teaching. These findings serve as a reminder for textbook writers of the importance of providing cognitive activities that can help learners develop both lower-order and higher-order thinking skills in textbooks.</em></p> 2022-05-10T08:35:42+07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Denda Rinjaya, Sisilia Setiawati Halimi “It's Frustrating, but…”: Brazilian and Indonesian Teachers’ Resilience to Assist Deaf Students’ Online Language Learning 2022-05-29T20:24:23+07:00 Antonio Henrique Coutelo de Moraes Rohmani Nur Indah <p align="justify"><em>Due to the recent increase in studies on emotions in Applied Linguistics and, especially now, in pandemic times, it opens more discussion to relate teachers' emotions with several other aspects including resilience. Therefore, this research aims to analyze language teachers’ experience in teaching deaf students in Recife, Brazil, and Malang, Indonesia. The methodology applied was qualitative. This study involved teachers in Recife, Brazil, and Malang, Indonesia. The teachers selected to be interviewed in this study were those who had experience teaching deaf students for at least five years and those who, during the pandemic times taught online. Two teachers were taken from each city. Findings point out, among other things, that decreasing the number of students per class and having parents involved in the process may help improve students' learning and teachers' experience and resilience. Based on the data on the implementation of language learning and the teachers' perception of the benefit, the constraints, and strategies in online language learning, resilience is triggered by the professional, personal, institutional, and community challenges.</em></p> 2022-05-10T09:06:57+07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Antonio Henrique Coutelo de Moraes, Rohmani Nur Indah 'Oh,' 'Well,' and Hedges as Negative Politeness Strategy: The Different Use of Discourse Markers in Female and Male Students' Utterances 2022-05-29T20:24:24+07:00 Ratna Padmi Trihartanti Muchammad Yassin Fadilah <p align="justify"><em>Investigating gender differences in utterances by employing discourse markers is very interesting and challenging as the similarities and differences could be seen more distinctly than without them. This research aims to find out the similarities and the differences between them in students’ interactions. The data were taken from female and male students’ utterances. After being analyzed using the qualitative method, it concluded that there were some similarities and differences in applying them. For expressing hesitation, Female students use ‘Hmm…,’ (20%), ‘I think…,’ (17%), and ‘Well…,’ (15%). Meanwhile, male students use ‘Well…’ (19%), ‘I think...,’ (20%), and ‘Hmm…,’ (10%). Female students use ‘Well…’ as a face threat mitigator and sometimes followed by ‘sorry …,’ (12%), whereas male students employ ‘Well…’ (7%). For expressing surprise, both use ‘Oh’ as a pure surprise (9%) and (6%). Female students prefer to use discourse markers ‘Wow…,’ (7%) if they feel amazed, whereas male students apply ‘Aah…,’ (6%). Both female and male students employ ‘By the way…,’ to interrupt (8%). The research revealed that male students hide their doubts better than female students; female students are more polite. The research also finds discourse markers from students’ local language that could be developed globally.</em></p> 2022-05-10T11:08:06+07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Ratna Padmi Trihartanti, Muchammad Yassin Fadilah Patterns of Acehnese Reduplication in Early Literary Works 2022-05-29T20:24:24+07:00 Faisal Mustafa <p align="justify"><em>Reduplication is a morphological operation in many Austronesian languages, including Acehnese. This process is very productive in Acehnese, and it occurs with many patterns. This study aims to find out the reduplication patterns in Acehnese based on nine literary works written in the 19th century or earlier. The study also focuses on reduplicated patterns and how affixation is treated in reduplication. The study was qualitative, and thus the data were analyzed qualitatively. The data collection and analysis included data extraction, data classification, data display, and data interpretation. The conclusion was verified by comparing the interpretation and tokens from the data. The results showed that reduplication in Acehnese appeared in total reduplication and partial reduplication. Each pattern involved rhythmic reduplications where vowel and some consonant alterations appeared in the reduplicants. In addition, some of those patterns were lexicalized reduplication, where the reduplication did not have any stem or non-reduplicated form. More than half of the lexicalized reduplicated words were onomatopoeia, words imitating sounds. Finally, only prefixes meu-, peu-, and teu- are found in Acehnese reduplication. These findings have provided comprehensive information regarding the patterns of Acehnese reduplication, which revealed that reduplication is a significant process of word formation in the language</em>.</p> 2022-05-12T08:08:01+07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Faisal Mustafa Ecocritical Reading of Postwar Narrative: Ecocide, Trauma, and Nostalgia in Bao Ninh's Vietnam War Novel "The Sorrow of War" 2022-05-29T20:24:24+07:00 Pranantika Oktaviani <p align="justify"><em>The impacts of the Vietnam War are not only massive on human lives but also on nature's sustainability. The relationship between humans and nature is seen to be disrupted by the presence of armed conflict. As an anthropocentric issue, war is often seen from the perspective of humanity. This paper analyzes how the ecocritical perspective reveals the effects of war and the connection between humans and the physical environment more thoroughly. As qualitative research, the primary data was obtained based on the relevant passages in the novel and examined using the concept of Ecophobia which defines the negative relationship between humans and nature caused by a lack of consideration toward nature sustainability. This research showed how ecocritical reading of war narrative reveals the existence of ecocide as a form of landscape destruction that affects humans' lives, trauma as a result of estrangement from nature, and a sense of nostalgia resulting from the image of idyllic space in harsh postwar reality. Based on the findings, it is stated that Bao Ninh's writing on Vietnam War displays the interconnection between humans and nature, which is revealed in certain angles of conflicts. </em></p> 2022-05-12T08:55:49+07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Pranantika Oktaviani West Coastal Toponyms of Sumatra Island: A Corpus Linguistics Study 2022-05-29T20:24:24+07:00 Hetti Waluati Triana Martin Kustati Nelmawarni Nelmawarni Reflinaldi Reflinaldi <p align="justify"><em>Several pieces of research on the toponym of place names in Indonesia have been carried out but focus on place names on the island of Java. The limited documentation of place names makes the study of toponymy in Sumatra a must. This article aims to map the thematization of place naming on the West Coast of Sumatra Island. The research was conducted in a qualitative descriptive manner with a corpus linguistic approach. Data was collected by means of documentation, interviews, and focus group discussions. Data were analyzed by following work procedures by Miles and Huberman (2013), involving data condensation, data display, verification drawing, and Sudaryat's toponymy categorization (2009). The results showed that the toponym of place names on the West Coast of Sumatra Island reflects the relationship between humans and their natural environment. This relationship is manifested through the thematization of place names, namely: embodiment, social, and culture. The embodiment aspect includes the sub-themes of water background, topographical background, and natural environment background. The social aspects include the sub-themes of residential background, economic activity background, and building background. The cultural aspects include sub-themes of myths, folklore, and legends passed down through oral traditions.</em></p> 2022-05-19T07:53:10+07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Hetti Waluati Triana, Martin Kustati, Nelmawarni, Reflinaldi Patterns of Indonesian Language Online Learning During Pandemic in Malang City 2022-05-29T20:24:25+07:00 Nova Shufia Tahmida Didin Widyartono <p align="justify"><em>System changes that occur quickly and suddenly during a pandemic change learning patterns. This can be seen in the pattern of learning including planning, implementation, and assessment. This present study aimed to find out the activities of Indonesian junior high school teachers throughout the city of Malang in online learning of the Indonesian language during the pandemic, which was elaborated in the form of percentages. This present study applied quantitative-descriptive research by using a survey method. Meanwhile, the data collection was performed by using a questionnaire with data analysis in the form of a percentage description. Afterward, the results showed that online learning based on the perspective of junior high school teachers in Malang city consisted of teachers' activities at the planning step (determining of K13 guidelines and provisional curriculum in the preparation of lesson plans was 100%), action step (doing mixed learning 47.6%), and assessment step (determining the principle of assessment of special conditions by adjusting the conditions and needs of students as much as 86.7%). This study indicates that online learning in Malang Junior High School during the pandemic makes teachers find distinctive language learning patterns based on the patterns of learning.</em></p> 2022-05-20T13:39:07+07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Nova Shufia Tahmida, Didin Widyartono The Power of Integrating Bite-Sized Learning and Teacher Talk on Telegram Amid Pandemic 2022-05-29T20:24:25+07:00 Lasmi Febrianingrum Eva Nikmatul Rabbianty <p align="justify"><em>Bite-sized learning works in synergy with microlearning. It promotes small activities and content to understand the materials in a sequence of ways with meaningful information. Telegram, one social media, can be used as an online learning platform. Bite-sized learning encourages Telegram features in providing simple and fun activities comprehensively. Teachers shared knowledge and skills, organized teaching activities, and helped students practice through teacher talks, either in organizing a classroom or achieving the teaching goals. Since this study explored how bite-sized learning and teacher talk on Telegram in L2 Listening class, this study used a qualitative approach with a case study. The result revealed how well the teacher communicates with the students during online learning in giving instruction, sharing ideas and knowledge, stimulating students to respond to the teacher and material, cultivating students’ intellectual ability, and managing classroom activities. Furthermore, those activities need to be more noticed, extra patience and energy, a more creative in delivering instruction and materials to initiate and stimulate students to respond and engage in the class. These study results imply that during online learning, the teacher talk and bite-sized learning need to be implemented and improved well and creatively to promote students’ understanding, interaction and engagement.</em></p> 2022-05-20T08:47:14+07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Lasmi Febrianingrum, Eva Nikmatul Rabbianty Taţwîr Mãddatin Nahwi al ‘Arabî min Khilãli an Nushûsh al Qur’ãnîyah Litarqiyati Mahãrõtil I’rõb ladã Thullãbi Ma’had al Aîmah al ‘Ãlî al Islãmî bi Malang 2022-05-29T20:24:25+07:00 Ahmed Mohamed Eltoukhi Badruzzaman M. Yunus Izzuddin Musthafa Uril Bahruddin <p align="justify"><em>There are problems experienced by students in learning Arabic, especially Nahwu and I'rab skills. This study aims to (1) develop Nahwu material using Qur'anic texts to improve the I'rab skills of students of Ma'had al-Aimmah al-‘Ali Malang, (2) determine the feasibility of the developed Arabic Nahwu material, and (3) measure the effectiveness of the application of the developed material. This study was research and development and analyzed using the five steps of ADDIE; analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation. Qualitative data were collected by interview, observation, and documentation, while quantitative data was collected using a questionnaire. The results of this study were 1) Nahwu material was developed based on the analysis of student needs to relate Nahwu material to the Qur'anic text. The material was designed using several selected Qur'anic texts, consisting of ten lessons. Each lesson came with objectives, content, exercises, and evaluations. The product was evaluated twice, before and after application. 2) The material developed is valid for testing, according to experts' evaluation of the material categorized as very good. 3) After the material was tested on students, it was effective in improving I'rab skills. Finally, the Arabic Nahwu materials development through the Qur'anic texts achieved the outstanding results obtained by students through the application of the developed materials, namely: improvement of I'rab skills, ease of memorizing the Qur'an, and language understanding.</em></p> 2022-05-23T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Ahmed Mohamed Eltoukhi, Badruzzaman M. Yunus, Izzuddin Musthafa, Uril Bahruddin