OKARA: Jurnal Bahasa dan Sastra http://ejournal.iainmadura.ac.id/index.php/okara <p align="justify"><strong>OKARA: Jurnal Bahasa dan Sastra or Journal of Languages and Literature</strong> (<a href="http://u.lipi.go.id/1180426079">ISSN 1907-624X</a> and <a href="http://u.lipi.go.id/1422410445">E-ISSN 2442-305X</a>) is a peer-reviewed journal published biannually by Pusat Pengembangan Bahasa [Center of Language development] of Institut Agama Islam Negeri (IAIN) Madura, in collaboration with <a href="https://drive.google.com/file/d/1UAkTfZA4qyqqEqtzZ-7zKAOH7zNU2xPD/view" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ELITE Association Indonesia</a>.</p> <p align="justify">The journal publishes research paper in the field of linguistics, literature, and language teaching, such as fundamental of ELT, the sound of word of language, structure, meaning, language and gender, sociolinguistic, language philosophy, historical of linguistic, origin/evolution, experimental linguistics, phonology, syntax, endangered minority language, language and nature, communicative strategy of teaching, linguistic anthropology, psychology of language, field methods in linguistic, interactive of language teaching.&nbsp;</p> <p align="justify">This journal is an open access journal which means that all content is freely available without any of charge to the user(s) or his/her institution. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author.</p> <p align="justify">OKARA has become a&nbsp;<a href="https://search.crossref.org/?q=okara+jurnal+bahasa+dan+sastra"><strong>Crossref Member</strong></a>&nbsp;since 2015, therefore all articles published by OKARA will have unique DOI number.</p> <p align="justify">OKARA is already evaluated in <strong><a href="http://arjuna2.ristekdikti.go.id/">Arjuna</a>&nbsp;</strong>and it has been nationally accredited (Sinta 3) by the&nbsp;Ministry of Research Technology and Higher Education of Republic Indonesia based on SK <strong><a href="https://drive.google.com/file/d/1Jz1nkxXah-YWA2wEje-aMsbSw6PwCLyg/view?usp=sharing" target="_blank" rel="noopener">No. 10/E/KTP/2019</a></strong>.</p> <p align="justify">OKARA has also been reviewed by <strong>ACI (ASEAN Citation Index)</strong> steering committee, and it has been advised to be <a href="https://drive.google.com/file/d/1aep92qLVaSdeZCa2oON83ttgN_es4jUZ/view?usp=sharing" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>accepted</strong></a> for ACI inclusion on November 1, 2018.</p> IAIN MADURA en-US OKARA: Jurnal Bahasa dan Sastra 1907-624X <div id="copyrightNotice"> <div style="text-align: justify;"> <p>The journal operates an Open Access policy under a <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/"> <strong><span style="color: #007eac;">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.</span></strong></a> Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</p> <ol> <li class="show">Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a&nbsp;Creative Commons Attribution License&nbsp;that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show">Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show">Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.</li> </ol> </div> </div> Colonial Racial Ethnocentrism Towards Indigenous People in a Short Story Collection “Semua untuk Hindia” by Iksaka Banu (A Postcolonial Study) http://ejournal.iainmadura.ac.id/index.php/okara/article/view/3982 <p align="justify"><em>Dutch colonialism in Indonesia brought about physical oppression and conquest of territory and instilled racism. Understanding racism positions the indigenous people as a third class whose rank has never been higher than the Dutch. Racial ethnocentrism leads people to concepts and views of life that consider their culture to be far superior to the culture owned by others. This study aimed to reveal and describe the forms of racial ethnocentrism brought by the Dutch towards Indonesian society. The data were obtained from excerpts or quotes that contain elements of racism from a short story collection “Semua untuk Hindia (All for Hindia)” by Iksaka Banu. The analysis results revealed that racial ethnocentrism or racism emerged in racial prejudice, stereotypes, and discrimination in the short story collection. The cultivation of these ethnocentric behaviors was based on the Western cultural concept and view of ideal human beings and the human position passed down from generation to generation. It impacted the Dutch’s social construction and use of authority in oppressing the indigenous people in Indonesia. Indigenous figures were oppressed, marginalized, and their human rights were ignored. Research on the short story collection can strengthen the disclosure of colonialism history in Indonesia.</em></p> Nensilianti Nensilianti Sy. Fatma Al-Khiyyed Hasvivi Tri Anjarsari Fahrir Copyright (c) 2021 Nensilianti, Sy. Fatma Al-Khiyyed, Hasvivi Tri Anjarsari Fahrir 2021-05-31 2021-05-31 15 1 1 21 10.19105/ojbs.v15i1.3982 Communication Patterns in English Classes in Public Secondary Schools in Benguet, Philippines http://ejournal.iainmadura.ac.id/index.php/okara/article/view/4166 <p align="justify"><em>Communication patterns assume a vital role in the English classroom. It shapes the type of discourse conveyed by the teachers and the learners. This study looked into communication patterns in English classrooms and levels of questions employed in the classroom. Communication barriers and measures to address these communication barriers were identified. The descriptive method of research was utilized in the study. The study found that the students' opportunity to express themselves is limited because the communication patterns adopted in the English classroom involve initiation-response-evaluation/feedback. Students' reasoning, creative, and critical thinking skills are not honed because of the prevalence of questions in discourse. Communication anxiety and other communication barriers directly affect the communication process. Student's success in the development of their communication skills needs to be addressed. It is recommended that teachers employ communication patterns to give learners more opportunities to express ideas. The higher levels of questions should be used in the English classroom to develop their communication skills. Teachers should also employ different learning strategies to address the communication barriers and develop learners' communication skills.</em></p> Jevera Cawilan Domogen Copyright (c) 2021 Jevera Cawilan Domogen 2021-05-31 2021-05-31 15 1 22 39 10.19105/ojbs.v15i1.4166 Deconstructing Racist Humor: How Archie Boston’s Advertisements Provoke Institutionalized Racism http://ejournal.iainmadura.ac.id/index.php/okara/article/view/4522 <p align="justify"><em>Humor is one of the most used mediums for overcoming the dominant power in society. One type of humor, Black Humor, was initially used by the Black community to speak their voice regarding the racism they face every day. However, it showed that even the most powerful tool could also act as a double-edged sword for its users. In this research, we analyzed three advertisements made by Archie Boston circa the 1960s that took the symbolism of the Ku Klux Klan, Uncle Sam, and slavery and turned these symbolisms into objects of humor. Using Kress and van Leeuwen’s Grammar of Visual Design, Barthes’ visual semiotics, and incongruity theory by Goldstein and McGhee, these advertisements were analyzed and then critically associated with the theory of Institutionalized Racism. The results revealed that these advertisements showed affiliation with how stereotypes are identified through symbolism by using humor and visual images. Therefore, these advertisements perpetuate negative stereotypes of the Black community by making Black people seem complicit in and supporting the racist acts that the symbols perpetuated.</em></p> Shaheila Valmai Kalyana Roeswan Yasmine Anabel Panjaitan Copyright (c) 2021 Shaheila Valmai Kalyana Roeswan, Yasmine Anabel Panjaitan 2021-05-31 2021-05-31 15 1 40 55 10.19105/ojbs.v15i1.4522 Does Proficiency Level Affect Learners’ Lexical Access in L1 and L2? http://ejournal.iainmadura.ac.id/index.php/okara/article/view/3877 <p align="justify"><em>Proficiency level is one important factor that contributes to learners’ language performance. Learners with higher proficiency levels tend to perform lexical access better and faster than those with lower proficiency. This study aims to investigate whether proficiency level affects lexical access in L1 and L2. The research involved seven Indonesian university students of master’s and doctoral degree programs at a university in the Netherlands who possess different proficiency levels. Two scrambled texts in the participants’ L1 and L2 were employed to test the participants. Meanwhile, the paired-samples t-test and correlation analysis were used to report the experiment. The results revealed an insignificant difference and a negative correlation between proficiency level and the number of errors and reading time. However, on average, the more proficient learners outperformed the less proficient, thus indicating that they may possess more complex lexical access in L1 and L2. Further studies are needed to provide other useful insights on this topic.</em></p> Muzakki Bashori Copyright (c) 2021 Muzakki Bashori 2021-05-31 2021-05-31 15 1 56 67 10.19105/ojbs.v15i1.3877 An Analysis of Maxims Violation Acted by the Main Characters in the "Tilik" Short Film http://ejournal.iainmadura.ac.id/index.php/okara/article/view/4146 <p align="justify"><em>The maxims violation often occurred intentionally or unintentionally in daily human conversation. This study analyzes the maxim violation in one of the Indonesian short films, 'Tilik,' in which Bu Tejo and Yu Ning were the main characters. This present study aims to describe the phenomena of maxim violation by the main characters. It is qualitative descriptive research. The technique used in collecting speech was the note-taking technique, and data were taken from the transcript of the main characters' utterances. Then, to analyze the maxim violation revealed in the short film, the researchers used the Cooperative Principles from Grice's theory, which has four kinds: quality, quantity, relevance, and manner. The findings indicated that the main characters carried out all four maxim types violations. The highest maxim violation found were the quantity and quality maxim. Some certain implicatures were contained when the main character of this short film reckoned to convey the implicit message, ensure the hearer, award astonishment, take for concern, and evade the problem. The study also exposed the rationales behind violating maxims, which helped create more straightforward communication and developing further explanations. Further studies can include more extensive data to obtain more robust findings.</em></p> Albiansyah Albiansyah Didin Nuruddin Hidayat Alek Alek Copyright (c) 2021 Albiansyah, Didin Nuruddin Hidayat, Alek 2021-05-31 2021-05-31 15 1 68 81 10.19105/ojbs.v15i1.4146 Bilingualism of Indonesian-English in Article Titles: A Case Study in Indonesian Mechanical Engineering Articles http://ejournal.iainmadura.ac.id/index.php/okara/article/view/3933 <p align="justify"><em>Bilingualism happens not only orally but also in written Indonesian articles. Usually, the articles use Indonesian and English terms. Bilingualism even can be seen in the articles’ titles. One of the fields that often use bilingual terms is found in Mechanical Engineering's articles. It happens because mechanical engineering has specialized terminology that sometimes untranslated into Indonesian terms. Many Indonesian experts have translated many English books with many variations of translation results. Therefore, the translation results are still questioned whether they are acceptable or not in Indonesian. This study aims to examine the factors of bilingualisms by observing titles of articles and finding the translation methods to translate the terminology from English to Indonesian. This study was qualitative research; by using questionnaires and observation, the research reveals that the main factor is untranslatability, where the English terminology cannot find its equivalent meaning in Indonesian. By using Molina and Albir's translation techniques, researchers reveal that the English terminologies can be translated in Indonesian using (1) amplification, (2) borrowing, (3) established equivalence, (4) calque, and (5) literal translation. This study concludes that the untranslatability problem can be solved when the experts try to use the accepted translation results rather than using English terms.</em></p> Yashinta Farahsani Margaretha Dharmayanti Harmanto Copyright (c) 2021 Yashinta Farahsani, Margaretha Dharmayanti Harmanto 2021-05-31 2021-05-31 15 1 82 98 10.19105/ojbs.v15i1.3933 “You Look Fat in Red”: Fat Talk in the Workplace http://ejournal.iainmadura.ac.id/index.php/okara/article/view/4509 <p align="justify"><em>In the Indonesian context, commenting on one's less adequate body size is considered normal. However, the effect it has on the person who is subjected to it is quite surprising. The fat talk phenomenon in the workplace is one example of fat talk case that remains under-researched. This research reflects the phenomenon of fat talk in the workplace viewed from a sociolinguistics viewpoint. In analyzing and gathering the evidence, this research uses a descriptive qualitative approach and citizen sociolinguistics. The data were obtained from the discovery made by citizen sociolinguists in the workplace. Based on Bulik's 12 types of fat talk, the results showed that the most frequent types are personalized and generic (24%), followed by compliment fishing and bullying (21%). The least used types of fat talk are comparative, joking, and fat-is-ugly. The results also showed that the fat talk's linguistic features were found to be linked to body parts, clothing, food, body health, appearance, weight, and context of appearance and height. Eventually, fat talk is a new language variation that has fulfilled a specific language purpose in the workplace.</em></p> Desy Catur Karinatasa Emy Sudarwati Copyright (c) 2021 Desy Catur Karinatasa, Emy Sudarwati 2021-05-31 2021-05-31 15 1 99 118 10.19105/ojbs.v15i1.4509 The Heroic Archetypes and the Reinvention of Aswang Character in Segundo Matias’ Moymoy Lulumboy Ang Batang Aswang http://ejournal.iainmadura.ac.id/index.php/okara/article/view/3828 <p align="justify"><em>Marginalized and queer heroes are being recognized in the resurgence of various types of characters in contemporary hero narratives. In challenging the normative conventions, there are heroic values in the ambiguous presentation of their character which are revived and valorized based on the heroic archetypes presented in the story. Given this, how do we reconcile the normative conventions of hero attributed to queer and deviant representation of his character and heroic deeds? This paper analyzes the contemporary work of Segundo Matias' Moymoy Lulumboy: Ang Batang Aswang. Patterned from Joseph Campbell's normative structure of hero's journey, which models the representation of various nature of character heroes and their established heroic archetypes, this study revealed that a category of heroic deviant exists in portraying character hero in the revival of Aswang lore in contemporary urban legend. Furthermore, this paper affirms that the resurrection of the archetypal pattern and the marginal presentation of the hero and his journey present a re-inscripted image of Aswang from a "rigidly static" to a semi-heroic ascension.</em></p> Mary Ann Alcantara Illana Copyright (c) 2021 Mary Ann Alcantara Illana 2021-05-31 2021-05-31 15 1 119 142 10.19105/ojbs.v15i1.3828 Textbook Evaluation According to Outcome-Based Education (OBE) Principles http://ejournal.iainmadura.ac.id/index.php/okara/article/view/3778 <p align="justify"><em>Outcome-Based Education (OBE) is known as the new curriculum that seeks students' outcomes after learning about the materials. According to that, an evaluation through the textbook, as the most-used source in teaching English, especially in Extensive Reading, is needed. The purpose of this paper is to identify whether the textbook is suitable or not based on the OBE principles. Moreover, some capable lecturers participated in evaluating this textbook using a reliable checklist. This research used a descriptive quantitative method with the results showed that in terms of module contents, this textbook is 'very poor,' in terms of module language items, this textbook is 'poor,' then in terms of module presentation expediency, this textbook is 'very poor.' The findings of this study pointed out many lacks of the textbook that need improvement.</em></p> Leoni Damayanti Ive Emaliana Irene Nany Kusumawardani Copyright (c) 2021 Leoni Damayanti, Ive Emaliana, Irene Nany Kusumawardani 2021-05-31 2021-05-31 15 1 143 161 10.19105/ojbs.v15i1.3778 Ben Jelloun’s Point of View on Racism in the Essay Le Racisme Expliqueé À Ma Fille http://ejournal.iainmadura.ac.id/index.php/okara/article/view/4512 <p align="justify"><em>Moroccan literature has been growing since the 1950s, when Morocco was still under French occupation. The big themes that commonly appear in Moroccan literature are the issues of colonialism and racism. One Moroccan writer whose work speaks a lot about racism is Tahar Ben Jelloun. This article aims to analyze one of Ben Jelloun's works entitled Le Racisme expliquée à ma fille. The essay discusses a father and his 10-year-old daughter about racism and what makes people became racist. In the essay, some words are in bold, and these words are mostly phenomena or social events related to the dark history of world civilization due to racism. This study used a qualitative method by using Genette's focalization theory and opposition theory by Greimas markers. The analysis results show that the concept of racism in this essay is conveyed through the father's focalization even though the essay's form is a question and answer between the father and daughter. The selection of forms of dialogue with father and daughter figures can be seen as a narrative strategy to convey the implicit meaning to combat racism. Anti-racism education in the family is Tahar Ben Jelloun's reflection on solutions to racism in the world.</em></p> Annisa Nitya Pradivta Diah Kartini Lasman Copyright (c) 2021 Annisa Nitya Pradivta, Diah Kartini Lasman 2021-05-31 2021-05-31 15 1 162 180 10.19105/ojbs.v15i1.4512 Pragmatic Politeness of the Imperative Speech Used by the Elementary School Language Teachers http://ejournal.iainmadura.ac.id/index.php/okara/article/view/3810 <p align="justify"><em>As a means of communication, the politeness aspect of language always comes together with interpersonal communication. People can reflect politeness in communication activities through their verbal language. This research aims to analyze and describe the elementary school language teachers' imperative speech focusing on the form, meaning, and imperative pragmatic politeness. This study is descriptive qualitative research. The data were teachers' speeches during the teaching-learning process. The data were collected by using the observation method with observing, recording, and note-taking techniques. The imperative pragmatic meaning of the prohibition and interrogative speech describes the pragmatic meaning of imperative commands widely used by SD Integral Lukman al-Hakim Sumenep language teachers. Meanwhile, according to Leech's politeness principles, the teachers use six maxims categories; tact maxim, generosity maxim, approbation maxim, modesty maxim, agreement maxim, and sympathy maxim. In addition, imperative speech with the complete agreement is also found, namely in the form of action as a student's reaction to the teacher's imperative speech; the findings also prove that imperative speech found in the imperative form and the non-imperative form of politeness. Both of the politeness in the speech of the Language teacher forms are based on the construction of Leech's politeness principles</em>.</p> Afifah Raihany Eva Nikmatul Rabbianty Copyright (c) 2021 Afifah Raihany, Eva Nikmatul Rabbianty 2021-05-29 2021-05-29 15 1 181 198 10.19105/ojbs.v15i1.3810 Mushkilatu Tanfīdhi Manhaji Qismi Ta’līmi al-Lughati al-Arabiyyati Khilāla Taghayyuri Siyāsati al-Tarbiyyati al-Indonesiyyati: Dirasatu al-Hālati fī Jāmi’ati Madura al-Islamiyyati al- Ḥukūmiyyati http://ejournal.iainmadura.ac.id/index.php/okara/article/view/4540 <p align="justify"><em>In Indonesia, higher education curriculum policies have undergone many changes, from KBI, KBK, KPT, KPT-KKNI, and now KPT-KKNI-Merdeka Campus. Every change must leave much time-space for understanding, evaluation to the implementation stage. The reality is that many universities cannot adapt quickly. This study aims to determine how the Arabic Teaching Education Program of IAIN Madura breaks down the courses in a curriculum structure and the problems they face in implementing the curriculum, especially in formulating its curriculum structure. This study used a case study approach. The main subject was the curriculum of Arabic Teaching Education Program of IAIN Madura. Data collection methods used were interviews and documentation. The data analysis technique consisted of three activity lines, data reduction, data presentation, and conclusion drawing. The results showed that the curriculum structure of the Arabic Teaching Education Program of IAIN Madura did not meet the curriculum structure standards as guidelines for curriculum formulation made by the government. The problems in formulating the curriculum structure are 1) Lack of understanding of policymakers on government policies. 2) There is no technical guideline for curriculum development along with the deadline for Study Program Accreditation Renewal. 3) Lack of curriculum development funds.</em></p> Nurul Hadi M. Abdul Hamid Imam Asrori Copyright (c) 2021 Nurul Hadi, M. Abdul Hamid, Imam Asrori 2021-05-31 2021-05-31 15 1 199 219 10.19105/ojbs.v15i1.4540