OKARA: Jurnal Bahasa dan Sastra http://ejournal.iainmadura.ac.id/index.php/okara <div style="text-align: justify;"> <p style="line-height: 160%;"><span style="font-size: small; text-align: justify;"> <strong>OKARA: Jurnal Bahasa dan Sastra or Journal of Languages and Literature</strong> (<span style="text-align: justify; font-size: small; font-family: sans-serif;"><span style="color: #007eac; font-size: small; font-family: sans-serif;"><span style="color: #007eac;"><a style="text-decoration: none;" href="http://u.lipi.go.id/1180426079" target="_blank" rel="license noopener"><strong>P-ISSN: 1907-624X</strong></a></span></span></span> and <span style="text-align: justify; font-size: small; font-family: sans-serif;"><span style="color: #007eac; font-size: small; font-family: sans-serif;"><span style="color: #007eac;"><a style="text-decoration: none;" href="http://u.lipi.go.id/1422410445" target="_blank" rel="license noopener"><strong>E-ISSN: 2442-305X</strong></a></span></span></span>) is a peer-reviewed journal published biannually by the Center of Language development of Institut Agama Islam Negeri (IAIN) Madura, in collaboration with ELITE Association Indonesia. Accredited <span style="color: #007eac;"><a style="text-decoration: none;" href="https://sinta.kemdikbud.go.id/journals/detail?id=4045" target="_blank" rel="license noopener"><strong>Sinta 2 / Grade "B"</strong></a></span></span> <span style="font-size: small; text-align: justify;">by the Directorate General of Higher Education, Research, and Technology of the Republic of Indonesia under <span style="text-align: justify; font-size: small; font-family: sans-serif;"><span style="color: #007eac; font-size: small; font-family: sans-serif;"><span style="color: #007eac;"><strong style="text-decoration: none;"><a style="text-decoration: none;" href="https://drive.google.com/file/d/1QehgsfwHAJ8mmcxTgtWXWyr2yx8Flpih/view" target="_blank" rel="license noopener">Decree No. 164/E/KPT/2021</a>.</strong></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="line-height: 160%;"><span style="font-size: small; text-align: justify;"> The journal publishes research papers in the field of linguistics, literature, and language teaching, such as fundamentals of ELT, the sound of the word of the language, structure, meaning, language and gender, sociolinguistic, language philosophy, history of linguistic, origin/evolution, experimental linguistics, phonology, syntax, endangered minority language, language and nature, the communicative strategy of teaching, linguistic anthropology, the psychology of language, field methods in linguistic, interactive of language teaching.</span></p> <p style="line-height: 160%;"><span style="font-size: small; text-align: justify;"> This journal is an open-access journal which means that all content is freely available without any charge to the user(s) or his/her institution. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author.</span></p> <p style="line-height: 160%;"><span style="font-size: small; text-align: justify;"> OKARA has become a <span style="text-align: justify; font-size: small; font-family: sans-serif;"><span style="color: #007eac; font-size: small; font-family: sans-serif;"><span style="color: #007eac;"><a style="text-decoration: none;" href="https://search.crossref.org/?q=okara+jurnal+bahasa+dan+sastra" target="_blank" rel="license noopener"><strong>Crossref Member</strong></a></span></span></span> since 2015, therefore all articles published by OKARA will have unique DOI numbers. OKARA has also been reviewed by <span style="text-align: justify; font-size: small; font-family: sans-serif;"><span style="color: #007eac; font-size: small; font-family: sans-serif;"><span style="color: #007eac;"><a style="text-decoration: none;" href="http://www.asean-cites.org/aci_search/journal.html?b3BlbkpvdXJuYWwmaWQ9MTA3NjA" target="_blank" rel="license noopener"><strong>ACI (ASEAN Citation Index)</strong></a></span></span></span><span style="text-align: justify; font-size: small; font-family: sans-serif;"><span style="color: #007eac; font-size: small; font-family: sans-serif;"><span style="color: #007eac;"><strong style="text-decoration: none;">&nbsp;</strong></span></span></span>steering committee, and it has been advised to be <span style="text-align: justify; font-size: small; font-family: sans-serif;"><span style="color: #007eac; font-size: small; font-family: sans-serif;"><span style="color: #007eac;"><a style="text-decoration: none;" href="https://drive.google.com/file/d/1aep92qLVaSdeZCa2oON83ttgN_es4jUZ/view?usp=sharing" target="_blank" rel="license noopener"><strong>accepted</strong></a></span></span></span> for ACI inclusion on November 1, 2018.</span></p> </div> en-US <div id="copyrightNotice"> <div style="text-align: justify;"> <p>The journal operates an Open Access policy under a <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/"> <strong><span style="color: #007eac;">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.</span></strong></a> Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</p> <ol> <li class="show">Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a&nbsp;Creative Commons Attribution License&nbsp;that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show">Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show">Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.</li> </ol> </div> </div> <hr style="”border-bottom: 3px;"> okara@iainmadura.ac.id (Mr. Abd. Ghofur) okara@iainmadura.ac.id (Umar Bukhory) Tue, 30 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0700 OJS 3.1.2.4 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Terror Narrative: Representing State Violence in Modern Indonesian Literature http://ejournal.iainmadura.ac.id/index.php/okara/article/view/4113 <p align="justify"><em>Literature and society are a way of looking at problems in society. Literature not only functions as entertainment, but it may also represent socio-political problems. Some literary works even carry more roles as both a reflection of such issues and a means of protest against them, including human rights violations. This paper examines how Indonesian literature has reflected human rights breaches, such as oppression in Indonesia during the New Order era. This qualitative research was conducted through direct documentation. The research revealed that the regime punished any individuals, groups, or institutions which tried to challenge its policy by the name of national stability. Some writers, such as Putu Wijaya, used anecdotes to protest against such oppression. He was a prolific Indonesian writer whose works often expose socio-political issues, such as human rights violations in Indonesia. His writings suggest his disagreement with such abuses. The three short stories investigated here "Sket," "Mulut," and "Rakyat" represent Putu Wijaya's dissent with the violence performed by the apparatus of the regime. Playing his role as a literary activist, Putu uses these stories to remind rights perpetrators that such cases as seen in the stories have taken place and might take place somewhere in Indonesia.</em></p> Ferdinal Ferdinal Copyright (c) 2021 Ferdinal http://ejournal.iainmadura.ac.id/index.php/okara/article/view/4113 Mon, 08 Nov 2021 09:38:51 +0700 To Live but Die Inside: A Lamentable State of Montressor in “The Cask of Amontillado” http://ejournal.iainmadura.ac.id/index.php/okara/article/view/4563 <p align="justify"><em>The enduring quality of "The Cask of Amontillado" makes it a timeless classic in which researchers from different generations offer a variety of subjective interpretations. This study aims to look closer to the story of "The Cask of Amontillado" to reveal other underlying themes. The themes were identified using content/textual analysis and a humanistic literary approach in interpreting meanings. The themes discovered involve excessive self-esteem, a penchant for prestige, lusting for another's good fortune (envy), and love deprivation. These themes, in a way, express the psychological needs of humans reflected in Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs. Left unsatisfied, these basic human needs (self-esteem, prestige, and love) led to the characters' downfall because their thoughts and actions were inconsistent with ethical conduct. Findings of the study may add to the existing interpretations of the story, which primarily discuss and look into the various facets of its overarching theme of revenge along with Montressor’s mental condition.</em></p> Jesusa C. Francisco Copyright (c) 2021 Jesusa C. Francisco http://ejournal.iainmadura.ac.id/index.php/okara/article/view/4563 Mon, 15 Nov 2021 14:12:57 +0700 Representation of Self-Concept in the Collection of Children's Stories from Bobo Magazine http://ejournal.iainmadura.ac.id/index.php/okara/article/view/4893 <p align="justify"><em>As construction of thought, self-concept will continue to grow and develop following the life experiences, one of which can come from stories. Therefore, this study aims to uncover and describe indicators of self-concept from children's stories. The data was obtained based on ten children's stories from the online version of Bobo magazine published in 2019-2020. This research used the content analysis method with categorization and tabulation until inference was found. The results revealed that Bobo magazine had implied self-concepts in the published stories. Among them, such as self-identity related to the labels attached by other characters as well as the character's desire to be what kind of self; personal behavior related to the views of other characters and figures in viewing their behavior; and self-judgment related to the acceptance or rejection of the character's behavior. Then, the physical self-concept associated with gender and character skills; moral self-concept related to the character's ability to control his behavior; personal self-concept related to good relations between characters; family self-concept related to the character's relationship with his family members; and social self-concept related to the character's relationship with his peers. These findings appear to confirm the representation of self-concepts in Indonesian children's short stories.</em></p> Wita Siti Mahmudah, Seni Apriliya, Ahmad Mulyadiprana Copyright (c) 2021 Wita Siti Mahmudah, Seni Apriliya, Ahmad Mulyadiprana http://ejournal.iainmadura.ac.id/index.php/okara/article/view/4893 Thu, 18 Nov 2021 14:49:44 +0700 Westernization and Colonization of the Mind in Chinua Achebe’s “Dead Men’s Path” http://ejournal.iainmadura.ac.id/index.php/okara/article/view/5168 <p align="justify"><em>British occupation in Nigeria has brought several impacts to the native land and also the indigenous people. Westernization and colonization of the mind are two inseparable effects of colonialism. These two issues are oftentimes depicted in literary works focusing on colonialism as their theme. The aim of this study is to analyze the issues of westernization and colonization of the mind raised in Chinua Achebe's "Dead Men's Path." The data were taken from quotes that prove the existence of these issues from a short story entitled “Dead Men’s Path” by Chinua Achebe and analyzed them using Homi Bhabha’s theory of mimicry and Ngũgĩ wa Thiong’o’s theory of colonization of the mind. The results showed that westernization and colonization of the mind have affected Michael Obi, the main character in the story. Westernization influences Obi to adopt modern life and Western thoughts that show the process of mimicry, while colonization of the mind makes Obi downgrades Nigerian cultures. The issue of the management of land was also found in the story as a continuation of the previous problems. “Dead Men’s Path” by Chinua Achebe reveals that British colonialism has changed the perspectives of Nigerian elites, as seen in Michael Obi’s story.</em></p> Maria Regina Anna Hadi Kusumawardani Copyright (c) 2021 Maria Regina Anna Hadi Kusumawardani http://ejournal.iainmadura.ac.id/index.php/okara/article/view/5168 Thu, 18 Nov 2021 15:14:52 +0700 Promoting Student Questioning in EFL Classroom: Teacher’s Strategies in 2013 Curriculum Context http://ejournal.iainmadura.ac.id/index.php/okara/article/view/4284 <p align="justify"><em>The government expects that the learning process in the 2013 curriculum uses inspiring, interactive, fun, and challenging activities that engage students’ participation in the class. The students’ involvement and critical thinking in meaningful learning are increased when the students ask questions productively in the classroom. However, Indonesian EFL students are indicated to have little space for interacting in the classroom, not to mention questioning. For that reason, this study aims to explore the teacher’s strategies in encouraging student questioning in EFL class. A qualitative research design was conducted through observation, interview, and questionnaire. The findings showed that the teacher used various strategies in promoting student questioning: providing a free question time, using turn-taking questioning, evolving a receptive classroom atmosphere, and giving explicit instruction in the teaching and learning process. Finally, this study implies that Indonesian EFL students would be encouraged to ask questions actively when: (a) the activities to pose questions were set; (b) objects or topics of questioning to scaffold students were provided; (c) classroom climate was accepted questions; (d) clear instructions were given. Thus, student questioning could be raised through instructional interventions from the teacher.</em></p> Desi Wijayanti Ma'rufah Copyright (c) 2021 Desi Wijayanti Ma'rufah http://ejournal.iainmadura.ac.id/index.php/okara/article/view/4284 Thu, 18 Nov 2021 16:44:33 +0700 Expression of Language and Gender in the Movie “Imperfect: Karier, Cinta & Timbangan” (Sociolinguistic Studies) http://ejournal.iainmadura.ac.id/index.php/okara/article/view/4508 <p align="justify"><em>The dialogues used by the male and female main character in the movie "Imperfect: Karier, Cinta &amp; Timbangan" has many different language characteristics. This research aims to elaborate the expression of language characteristics of main male and female characters in the movie based on Qi Pan's theory and define the socio-cultural factors behind using these language characteristics. This research was qualitative descriptive research. The data source was the movie’s script of "Imperfect: Karier, Cinta &amp; Timbangan." To collect data, the researcher used watching, listening, and writing techniques. Then, the data were analyzed using the textual analysis method. The results revealed that (a) the main female character uses 11 language characteristics according to Qi Pan's theory in dialogue. In contrast, the main male character does not use these language characteristics. Only hypercorrection characteristics are not used in both speeches, and (b) language differences in characters' speeches are influenced by socio-cultural factors that shape their personalities in the movie, creating gender stereotypes that appear in both genders based on their characters. This research represents an expression and relevance between language and gender, which can be found in real life and literary works, one of which is elaborated through Indonesian movie media.</em></p> Fauziyah Kurniawati Copyright (c) 2021 Fauziyah Kurniawati http://ejournal.iainmadura.ac.id/index.php/okara/article/view/4508 Fri, 19 Nov 2021 16:02:10 +0700 The Searching for Self-Identity in Kazuo Ishiguro’s Never Let Me Go http://ejournal.iainmadura.ac.id/index.php/okara/article/view/3205 <p align="justify"><em>Self-identity is an aspect that every human in the world has. Without it, a person is in danger of being negatively affected by those around him/her and by the outside world. Some people are grappling with this identity-forming phase in their search for self-definition. This is reflected in Never Let Me Go by Kazuo Ishiguro. Therefore, this research aims to describe the main characters' search for self-identity as seen in the novel. The type of this research was library research. This research applied a psychological approach, and the data were analyzed using the descriptive qualitative method. The results showed that Kathy and Tommy's quest to find their true selves occurred in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood stages. Narrated by Kathy, she flashed back the memories of how they, Kathy and Tommy, are puzzled because of too many mysteries in Hailsham, the boarding school where they live. They connected each puzzle which could be the answer. But, in the novel, the question they belong to for being different brought them to another question. The process of findings itself flowed as long as they grew. In the end, they found information about their identity as a clone and as an individual.</em></p> Rahmi Munfangati, Aisyah Nur Handayani Copyright (c) 2021 Rahmi Munfangati, Aisyah Nur Handayani http://ejournal.iainmadura.ac.id/index.php/okara/article/view/3205 Fri, 26 Nov 2021 08:42:04 +0700 ‘Tilik’: A Study of Power Among Javanese Women Through Gossip http://ejournal.iainmadura.ac.id/index.php/okara/article/view/5090 <p align="justify"><em>Gossip plays a crucial part in our communicative and social behavior as it is thought to be a manifestation of any ‘ordinary’ everyday life. Interestingly, the portrayal of gossip in Javanese culture can be found in the recent viral short movie Tilik (The Ladies on Top). Unfortunately, contemporary interpretations and discussions about Bu Tejo often focus only on what gossip is about and its negative effect on the image of women. None of them observed the relation between gossip and power. Thus, the study aims to analyze gossip in Tilik movie by using the concept of power among Javanese women. The writer used the qualitative method. The writer focused on the theory of gossip and power; and used the concept of power among Javanese women proposed by Handayani and Novianto. This research revealed that gossip in Tilik becomes the weapon of choice in the female arsenal due to the rivalry between Bu Tejo and Dian. Bu Tejo’s negative attitude towards Dian can be seen as a political tactic for Javanese women, and the personal is political. Lastly, the acts of gossiping in the movie match with the concept of how Javanese women play the game of power through ­srawung (socialization).</em></p> Putri Rindu Kinasih Copyright (c) 2021 Putri Rindu Kinasih http://ejournal.iainmadura.ac.id/index.php/okara/article/view/5090 Fri, 26 Nov 2021 13:49:44 +0700 The Students’ Needs in Developing EFL Materials ICT Based http://ejournal.iainmadura.ac.id/index.php/okara/article/view/4679 <p><em>In developing English communication skills, the student's needs, wants, and lacks are crucial. The materials given should be suitable for the students' wants. These issues are vital in developing any English materials on ICT-based. This study explores the students' needs, wants, and lacks in learning English by developing suitable materials with the ICT-based. The mixed approach was used in this study. The researchers distributed the survey to 350 students from Indonesia and other countries (Kosovo, Kuwait, Ghana, Pakistan, Philippines, India, and United Kingdom) involved in the Share to Care Community in collecting the data. They were assigned to fill the Google form about their needs in learning English. The result showed that the students need materials that fulfill their needs. It should be related to today's facts, easy enough to share with, and easy to access by the students' technologies devices, then using both target languages L2 and L1 to deliver the materials. While teaching, the lecturers used any method; role-playing is the most common, followed by oral reports, games, outdoor learning, and blended learning. Most of the students from several countries intended to have ICT in their learning process.</em></p> Muthmainnah, Nur Aeni, Mohammed Galal, K. J. Varghese, Fides Del Castillo, Abd. Ghofur Copyright (c) 2021 Muthmainnah, Nur Aeni, Mohammed Galal, K. J. Varghese, Fides Del Castillo, Abd. Ghofur http://ejournal.iainmadura.ac.id/index.php/okara/article/view/4679 Tue, 30 Nov 2021 12:38:55 +0700