Terrorism Eradication in ASEAN Countries: Human Rights Perspective

  • Satria Unggul Wicaksana Prakasa University of Muhammadiyah Surabaya
  • Sholahuddin Al-Fatih University of Muhammadiyah Malang
  • Abdurrahman Raden Aji Haqqi Universiti Islam Sultan Sharif Ali
Abstract views: 235 , PDF downloads: 132
Keywords: ASEAN, Counter Terrorism, Human Rights, Southeast Asia

Abstract

This research aims to discuss ASEAN counter-terrorism policy and its impact on human rights protection. The terrorism act of Abu Sayyaf in the Philippines, the spread of terrorism in Indonesia by JAT and JAD, and the rebellion movement in Pattani-Thailand are the most heard of terrorism cases in Southeast Asian countries. The research focused on the regulatory through comparative approaches. The result found that ASEAN has an agreement known as ASEAN Convention on Counter-Terrorism (ACCT) for combating terrorism. ACCT implementation in national legal regulations of ASEAN members in the midst of the spread of terrorism plays a crucial role in combating terrorism and its impact on human rights protection. However, the effort of eradicating terrorism in Southeast Asian countries is not in line with the principles of peace and regional integrity. The practice of authoritarianism and militarism has instead become most prominent as a result of perpetuating militarism-based legal regulations in resolving terrorism. Efforts for combating terrorism in Southeast Asia, therefore, leave a serious problem regarding the protection of human rights, the issue of impunity, attacks on civil society, and the involvement of the military which threatens territorial integrity. Those are at cross purposes with ACCT policies as well as national sovereignty, integrity, and security of ASEAN members. (Penelitian ini bertujuan membahas kebijakan anti-terorisme ASEAN dan dampaknya terhadap perlindungan hak asasi manusia. Aksi terorisme Abu Sayyaf di Filipina, penyebaran terorisme di Indonesia oleh JAT dan JAD, serta pemberontakan di Pattani-Thailand adalah kasus-kasus terorisme terpopuler yang terjadi di Asia Tenggara. Penelitian ini fokus pada peraturan perundang-undangan dengan pendekatan komparatif. Hasilnya menunjukkan bahwa ASEAN memiliki kesepakatan yang disebut Konvensi ASEAN tentang Kontra-Terorisme (ACCT) untuk memerangi terorisme. Penerapan ACCT dalam peraturan hukum nasional negara anggota ASEAN di tengah maraknya aksi terorisme sangat penting dalam upaya pemberantasan terorisme dan dampaknya terhadap perlindungan hak asasi manusia di ASEAN. Akan tetapi dalam praktiknya, pemberantasan terorisme di ASEAN masih belum sejalan dengan prinsip perdamaian dan keutuhan kawasan. Praktik otoritarianisme dan militerisme justru menjadi praktik paling menonjol yang dilakukan oleh negara-negara di ASEAN seiring dengan langgengnya regulasi hukum berbasis praktik militerisme dalam menyelesaikan kejahatan terorisme. Pemberantasan terorisme di Asia Tenggara menyisakan masalah serius terkait perlindungan hak asasi manusia, isu impunitas, serangan terhadap masyarakat sipil, dan keterlibatan militer yang mengancam integritas teritorial. Isu-isu tersebut bertentangan dengan Kebijakan ACCT serta kedaulatan, integritas nasional, dan keamanan anggota ASEAN.)

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Acharya, A. Constructing a Security Community in Southeast Asia : Asean and the Problem of Regional Order. ProQuest Ebook Central, 2014.

Al-Fatih, Sholahuddin, and Zaka Firma Aditya. “The Legal Protection Against Terrorism Suspects In Indonesia (Case Study of The Arrest Process of Terrorism Suspects By Densus 88).” Legality : Jurnal Ilmiah Hukum 27, no. 1 (2019): 14–26. https://doi.org/10.22219/jihl.v27i1.8954.

Alam, Cecep Purnama. “Tinjauan Yuridis Teori Hak Asasi Manusia Terhadap Tindakan Ekstra Judicial Killing (Studi Kasus Pembunuhan Terduga Teroris Siyono Oleh Densus 88).” Universitas Islam Negeri Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta, 2019. http://repository.uinjkt.ac.id/dspace/handle/123456789/48079.

Arianta, Ketut, Dewa Gede Sudika Mangku, Ni Putu, and Rai Yuliartini. “Perlindungan Hukum Bagi Kaum Etnis Rohingya Dalam Perspektif Hak Asasi Manusia Internasional.” Journal Komunitas Yustitia 3, no. 2 (2020): 166–76. https://doi.org/10.23887/jatayu.v3i2.28849.

Arifin, Ridwan, and Muhamad Adji Rahardian Utama. “Future Impact of the Asean-Russia Law Declaration to the International Terrorism: Can We Combat Terrorist without War?” Russian Law Journal 8, no. 2 (2020): 4–27. https://doi.org/10.17589/2309-8678-2020-8-2-4-27.

Arnold, Roberta, and Noelle Quenivet. International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights Law: Towards a New Merger in International Law. Leiden and Boston: Martinus Nijhoff Publisher, 2008.

Asal, Victor, K Deloughery, and A Murdie. “Responding to Terrorism? Human Rights Organization Shaming and Terrorist Attacks.” Studies in Conflict & Terrorism 39, no. 3 (2016): 240–59. https://doi.org/10.1080/1057610X.2015.1093887.

Ashour, Omar. The De-Radicalization of Jihadists: Transforming Armed Islamist Movements. 1st ed. London: Routledge, 2009. https://books.google.co.id/books?hl=id&lr=&id=h6pTaBDybKAC&oi=fnd&pg=PP1&dq=Ashour,+O.+(2009).+The+De-Radicalization+of+Jihadists:+Transforming+Armed+Islamist+Movements+(1st+ed.).+Routledge&ots=W9r2SjF2v2&sig=NuhX1bzOPZoTLu6iPSAEU0jjBkQ&redir_esc=y#v=onep.

Basu, A. “Social Network Analysis: A Methodology for Studying Terrorism.” In Intelligent Systems Reference Library, 65:215–42. Basel: Springer Nature, 2014.

Borelli, Marguerite. “ASEAN Counter - Terrorism Weaknesses.” International Centre for Political Violence and Terrorism Research 9, no. 9 (2017): 14–20. https://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/26351552.pdf?refreqid=excelsior%3A4b7501f4cc5772d930ea229e7b1c942d.

BUREAU OF COUNTERTERRORISM. “Country Reports on Terrorism 2019: Thailand.” US Depratment of State, 2020.

Chau, Andrew. “Security Community and Southeast Asia: Australia, the U.S., and ASEAN’s Counter-Terror Strategy.” Asian Survey 48, no. 4 (2008): 626–649. https://doi.org/10.1525/as.2008.48.4.626.

Chongkittavorn, Kavi. “Thailand: International Terrorism and the Muslim South.” Southeast Asian Affairs, 2004, 267–75.

Chow, Jonathan T. “ASEAN Counterterrorism Cooperation Since 9/11.” Asian Survey 45, no. 2 (2005). https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1525/as.2005.45.2.302.

Conte, A. Handbook on Human Rights Compliance While Countering Terrorism. London: Global Center on Cooperative Security, 2008. https://doi.org/10.2307/resrep20370.

Dewi, Asrieyani. “Peran Office Of The High Commissioner For Human Right Dalam Penyelesaian Kasus Genosida Etnis Rohingya Di Myanmar.” E-Journal Hubungan Internasional 1, no. 2 (2013).

Dreher, Axel, Martin Gassebner, and Lars‐H. Siemers. “Does Terrorism Threaten Human Rights? Evidence from Panel Data.” Journal of Law & Economics 53, no. 1 (2010): 65–93. https://doi.org/10.1086/596021.

Fadila, Ika. “Pelanggaran Hak Asasi Manusia Oleh Densus 88 Dalam Kasus Terduga Terorisme Siyono.” UIN SYarif Hidayatullah Jakarta, 2018. http://repository.uinjkt.ac.id/dspace/handle/123456789/44629.

Febrica, Senia. “Securing the Sulu-Sulawesi Seas from Maritime Terrorism : A Troublesome Cooperation?” Perspectives on Terrorism 8, no. 3 (2014): 64–83. https://www.jstor.org/stable/26297173?seq=1#metadata_info_tab_contents.

Frías, Ana María Salinas de, Katja Samuel, and Nigel White. Counter-Terrorism: International Law and Practice. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012. https://books.google.co.id/books?hl=id&lr=&id=mhC7TNrTGmcC&oi=fnd&pg=PP1&dq=Nigel+D.+White,+e.+(2012).+Counter-Terrorism:+International+Law+and+Practice.+Oxford:+Oxford+University+Press.&ots=DUQGBEL00K&sig=Oh7MYPm239TK9nn4b1CQ0UpSFRY&redir_esc=y#v=onepage.

Gordon, Sandy. “Regionalism and Cross-Border Cooperation against Crime and Terrorism in the Asia-Pacific.” Security Challenges 5, no. 4 (2009): 75–102. https://www.jstor.org/stable/26460070?seq=1#metadata_info_tab_contents.

Gunawan, Asril. “Tinjauan Hukum Internasional Terhadap Pelanggaran Hak Asasi Manusia Dalam Kejahatan Genosida Suku Rohingya Di Myanmar.” Universitas Sumatera Utara, 2018. http://repositori.usu.ac.id/handle/123456789/4479.

Haacke, Juurgen, and Noel M. Morada. Cooperative Security in the Asia-Pacific: The ASEAN Regional Forum. New York: Routledge, 2010.

Hamzani, Achmad Irwan, Fajar Dian Aryani, Nur Khasanah, Havis Aravik, and Nur Rohim Yunus. “The Trend to Counter Terrorism in Asean.” Journal of Advanced Research in Dynamical and Control Systems 12, no. 7 (2020): 105–13. https://doi.org/10.5373/JARDCS/V12I7/20201990.

Hara, Abubakar Eby. “The Struggle to Uphold a Regional Human Rights Regime: The Winding Role of Asean Intergovernmental Commission on Human Rights (AICHR).” Revista Brasileira de Politica Internacional 62, no. 1 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1590/0034-7329201900111.

Haryadi, Dwi. “Pemberantasan Terorisme Berorientasi HAM.” Masalah-Masalah Hukum 43, no. 2 (2014): 247-254–254. https://doi.org/10.14710/mmh.43.2.2014.247-254.

Hoffman, P. “Human Rights and Terrorism.” Human Rights Quarterly 26, no. 4 (2004): 932–55. www.jstor.org/stable/20069768.

ICG. “Jihadism in Southern Thailand: A Phantom Menace.” International Crisis Group, 2017. https://www.crisisgroup.org/asia/south-east-asia/thailand/291-jihadism-southern-thailand-phantom-menace.

Indonesia, CNN. “Pemerintah Putuskan Tak Akan Pulangkan 689 WNI Eks ISIS. Retrieved from CNN Indonesia.” CNN Indonesia, 2020.

Irwansyah. Penelitian Hukum: Pilihan Metode & Praktik Penulisan Artikel. Edited by Ahsan Yunus. Yogyakarta: Mirra Buana Media, 2020.

Jerard, Jolene, Ahmad Saiful Rijal bin Hassan, D.B. Subedi, Yanto Chandra, Zoraa Sukabdi, and Muhammad Siaful Alam. Deradicalisation and Terrorist Rehabilitation : A Framework for Policy-Making and Implementation. Edited by Rohan Gunaratna and Sabariah Hussin. Taylor & Francis, 2018. https://books.google.co.id/books?hl=id&lr=&id=7U9tDwAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PT16&dq=Rohan+Gunaratna,+and+Sabariah+Hussin+(ed),+Deradicalisation+and+Terrorist+Rehabilitation+:+A+Framework+for+Policy-Making+and+Implementation,+Taylor+%26+Francis+Group,+2018.+ProQu.

Jiménez Ramos, María. “The Impact of the Narrative of Victimization: An Experiment with University Students in Spain.” Behavioral Sciences of Terrorism and Political Aggression 0, no. 0 (2020): 1–23. https://doi.org/10.1080/19434472.2020.1856168.

Jins, Derek, and Jackson N. Maogoto. Applying International Humanitarian Law in Judicial and Quasi-Judicial Bodies: International and Domestic Aspects. Edited by Solon Solomon. Springer, 2014. https://books.google.co.id/books?hl=id&lr=&id=8fosBAAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PP5&dq=Derek+Jins,+e.+(2008).+Applying+International+Humanitarian+Law+in+Judicial+and+Quasi-Judicial+Bodie%3B+International+and+domestic+aspect.+London:+Springer.&ots=2GY9Zlh3hK&sig=rGP6.

Jones, L. ASEAN, Sovereignty, and Intervention in Southeast Asia. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011. https://books.google.co.id/books?hl=id&lr=&id=DbKIGm7x64kC&oi=fnd&pg=PP1&dq=Jones,+L.+(2012).+ASEAN,+Sovereignty,+and+Intervention+in+Southeast+Asia.+London:+Palgrave+MacMillan&ots=Cr4M8e9lp-&sig=kCdXruKIq4-FA8q4qKPLFPPy86A&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=Jones%252.

Kam, Stefanie. “LAOS.” In Handbook of Terrorism in the Asia-Pacific, 71–84. Singapore: Nanyang Technological University, 2016. https://doi.org/10.1142/9781783269969_0004.

Masuhara, A. The SAGE Handbook of Asian Foreign Policy. Edited by Takeshi Inoguchi. California: SAGE Publications, 2020. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781526436078.n54.

Nations, United. UN Doc A/RES/60/1 (2005).

———. UNGA Res 60/288 (2006).

Nugraha, AA Bagus Surya Widya. “Singapura Dan Permasalahan Terorisme.” Denpasar, 2018. http://erepo.unud.ac.id/id/eprint/21968/1/258d9fcbf781b6af3cf5bfb9b1fcdce5.pdf.

Prakasa, Satria Unggul Wicaksana, Basuki Babussalam, and Agus Supriyo. “Transnational Corruption and Its Impact on Indonesian Jurisdiction.” In 2nd International Conference of Law, Government and Social Justice (ICOLGAS 2020), 43–53. Atlantis Press, 2020. https://doi.org/10.2991/assehr.k.201209.266.

Putra, Aditya, and Diana Lukitasari. “Perbandingan Pengaturan Tindak Pidana Terorisme Di Indonesia Dan Malaysia.” Recidivie 8, no. 1 (2019): 1–12. https://jurnal.uns.ac.id/recidive/article/view/40611.

Rachma, Alfianti Dwi. “Perbandingan Hukum Pidana Terhadap Kejahatan Terorisme Di Indonesia Dan Filipina.” Universitas Pancasakti Tegal, 2020.

Roach, K. Comparative Counter-Terrorism Law. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2015.

Schmid, A. P. “The Literature on Terrorism.” In The Routledge Handbook of Terrorism Research, 460–62. New York: Routledge, 2011.

Sebastian, Leonard C. “The ASEAN Respond to Terrorism.” UNISCI Discussion PapersSCI Discussion Paper 2 (2003): 1–8. https://www.redalyc.org/pdf/767/76711296010.pdf.

Staff, Reuters. “Vietnam Jails 20 for Terrorism over Police Station Bombs.” Reuters, 2020.

Stewart, D. Terrorism and Human Rights: The Perspective of International Law. Washington DC: Middle East Institute, 2018. https://doi.org/10.2307/resrep19954.7.

Sukma, Rizal. “The ASEAN Political and Security Community (APSC): Opportunities and Constraints for the R2P in Southeast Asia.” The Pacific Review 25, no. 1 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1080/09512748.2011.632975.

Susilo, Sulistiyono, and Reza Pahlevi Dalimunthe. “Moderate Southeast Asian Islamic Education as a Parent Culture in Deradicalization: Urgencies, Strategies, and Challenges.” Religions 10, no. 1 (2019). https://doi.org/10.3390/rel10010045.

Swanström, Niklas. “Southeast Asia’s War on Terror: Who Is Cooperating across Borders?” Harvard Asia Quarterly 9, no. 1 (2005). https://web.a.ebscohost.com/abstract?direct=true&profile=ehost&scope=site&authtype=crawler&jrnl=15224147&AN=18820016&h=O8lb27VqaImHxUMzj5qWG1GiEPakNbFiByGFsKUmrj5yzqlxAkef5Y1LBAd4F%2B90RCPbCrliNidmEFXanZPG4Q%3D%3D&crl=c&resultNs=AdminWebAuth&resultLocal=E.

Tan, See Seng. “After Marawi : Military ’ s Regional Role in Counter-Terrorism ?” RSIS Commentary, no. 016 (2018): 2016–18. https://www.rsis.edu.sg/wp-content/uploads/2018/01/CO18016.pdf.

Thontowi, Jawahir. “HAM Di Negara-Negara Muslim Dan Realitas Perang Melawan Teroris Di Indonesia.” Pandecta: Research Law Journal 8, no. 2 (2013). https://doi.org/10.15294/pandecta.v8i2.2680.

Yong, Ong Keng. “Advancing Multilateral Efforts in Counter Terrorism and Security in Southeast Asia.” Military Technology 31, no. 12 (2007): 18–23.

Published
2021-12-31
Section
Articles