Colonial Racial Ethnocentrism Towards Indigenous People in a Short Story Collection “Semua untuk Hindia” by Iksaka Banu (A Postcolonial Study)
Dutch colonialism in Indonesia brought about physical oppression and conquest of territory and instilled racism. Understanding racism positions the indigenous people as a third class whose rank has never been higher than the Dutch. Racial ethnocentrism leads people to concepts and views of life that consider their culture to be far superior to the culture owned by others. This study aimed to reveal and describe the forms of racial ethnocentrism brought by the Dutch towards Indonesian society. The data were obtained from excerpts or quotes that contain elements of racism from a short story collection “Semua untuk Hindia (All for Hindia)” by Iksaka Banu. The analysis results revealed that racial ethnocentrism or racism emerged in racial prejudice, stereotypes, and discrimination in the short story collection. The cultivation of these ethnocentric behaviors was based on the Western cultural concept and view of ideal human beings and the human position passed down from generation to generation. It impacted the Dutch’s social construction and use of authority in oppressing the indigenous people in Indonesia. Indigenous figures were oppressed, marginalized, and their human rights were ignored. Research on the short story collection can strengthen the disclosure of colonialism history in Indonesia.
Bahardur, Iswadi. “Pribumi Subaltern dalam Novel-Novel Indonesia Pascakolonial.” Gramatika: Jurnal Penelitian Bahasa dan Sastra 4, no. 1 (2017): 89–100. https://doi.org/10.22202/jg.2017.v3i1.1876.
Banu, Iksaka. Semua untuk Hindia. Jakarta: Kepustakaan Populer Gramedia, 2018.
Brown, Rupert. Prejudice: Its Social Psychology. London: Wiley-Blackwell, 2011.
Carignan, Nicole, Michael Sanders, and Roland G. Pourdavood. “Racism and Ethnocentrism: Social Representations of Preservice Teachers in the Context of Multi- and Intercultural Education.” The International Journal of Qualitative Methods 4, no. 3 (2005): 1–19. https://doi.org/10.1177/160940690500400301.
Charles, Christopher A D. “Skin Bleachers’ Representations of Skin Color in Jamaica.” Journal of Black Studies 40, no. 2 (2009): 153–70. https://doi.org/10.1177/0021934707307852.
Cunningham, William A., John B. Nezlek, and Mahzarin R. Banaji. “Implicit and Explicit Ethnocentrism: Revisiting the Ideologies of Prejudice.” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 30, no. 10 (2004): 1332–46. https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167204264654.
Dermawan, Rusdian Noor, and Joko Santoso. “Mimikri dan Resistensi Pribumi Terhadap Kolonialisme dalam Novel Jejak Langkah Karya Pramoedya Ananta Toer: Tinjauan Poskolonial.” Caraka 4, no. 1 (2017): 33–58. https://doi.org/10.30738/caraka.v4i1.2165.
Fanon, Frantz. Black Skin, White Masks: Kolonialisme, Rasisme, Psikologi Kulit Hitam. Translated by Harris H Setiadji. Yogyakarta: Jalasutra, 2016.
Goh, Daniel P. S. “From Colonial Pluralism to Postcolonial Multiculturalism: Race, State Formation and the Question of Cultural Diversity in Malaysia and Singapore.” Sociology Compass 2, no. 1 (2008): 232–52. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-9020.2007.00065.x.
Hall, Schekeva. “The Role of Racial Socialization and Ethnocentrism in the Racial Identity Development of Second-Generation Black West Indian Americans.” Columbia University, 2012. https://academiccommons.columbia.edu/doi/10.7916/D8RV0VTK.
Irenewaty, Terry. “Eksistensi Perjuangan Wanita Masa Kolonial.” ISTORIA: Jurnal Pendidikan dan Ilmu Sejarah 12, no. 1 (2016): 13–27. https://doi.org/10.21831/istoria.v12i1.9541.
Kauanui, J.Kēhaulani. “Tracing Historical Specificity: Race and the Colonial Politics of (In) Capacity.” American Quarterly 69, no. 2 (2017): 257–65. https://doi.org/10.1353/aq.2017.0019.
Lake, Marilyn. “Equality and Exclusion: The Racial Constitution of Colonial Liberalism.” Thesis Eleven 95, no. 1 (2008): 20–32. https://doi.org/10.1177/0725513608095798.
Lampe, Ilyas, and Haslinda B. Anriani. “Stereotipe, Prasangka dan Dinamika Antaretnik.” Jurnal Penelitian Pers dan Komunikasi Pembangunan 20, no. 1 (2016): 19–32. https://doi.org/10.46426/jp2kp.v20i1.42.
Loomba, Ania. Kolonialisme / Pascakolonialisme. Translated by Hartono Hadikusumo. Yogyakarta: Narasi, 2016.
Martin, James G. “Racial Ethnocentrism and Judgment of Beauty.” The Journal of Social Psychology 63, no. 1 (1964): 59–63. https://doi.org/10.1080/00224545.1964.9922213.
Mulyana, Deddy, and Jalaluddin Rakhmat. Komunikasi Antar Budaya: Panduan Berkomunikasi dengan Orang-Orang Berbeda. Bandung: Remaja Rosdakarya, 2010.
Nensilianti, and Dian Hezedila Sharon. “Novel Entitle Student Hidjo by Mas Marco Kartodikromo: Postcolonial Study.” In International Conference on Natural and Social Sciences (ICONSS) Proceeding Series 1, 2:375–81, 2019. https://doi.org/10.30605/iconss.57.
Nurhuda, Taguh Alif, and Herman J Waluyo Suwitno. “Pemanfaatan Sastra Sebagai Bahan Ajar Pengajaran BIPA.” In The 1st Education and Language International Conference Proceedings Center for International Language Development of Unissula. Halaman, 864–69. The 1st Education and Language International Conference Proceedings Center for International Language Development of Unissula, 2017.
Nwosu, Canice, and Somtoo Arinze-Umobi. “Colonial Alienation and Postcolonial Marginality in African Drama: Implications for Lasting Peace in Africa.” International Journal of Art and Art History 4, no. 2 (2016): 101–28. https://doi.org/10.15640/ijaah.v4n2a8.
Onoja, Adoyi F. “Sustaining a Tradition of Policing Through Alienation: An Assessment of Recruitment and Training in the Colonial and Postcolonial Nigeria Police.” Annual Journal of African History 13, no. 1 (2017): 137–51. https://www.africabib.org/rec.php?RID=32897160X.
Permatasari, Riana. “The Negative Effects of Ethnocentrism in My Big Fat Greek Wedding Movie.” Jurnal Penelitian Humaniora 20, no. 2 (2019): 89–97. https://doi.org/10.23917/humaniora.v20i2.7401.
Putranto, I. Eddy. “Dekonstruksi Identitas (Neo) Kolonial: Sebuah Agenda Teologi Postkolonial.” MELINTAS 27, no. 3 (2011): 311–24. https://doi.org/10.26593/mel.v27i3.297.311-324.
Raben, Remco. “Colonial Shorthand and Historical Knowledge: Segregation and Localisation in a Dutch Colonial Society.” Journal of Modern European History 18, no. 2 (2020): 177–93. https://doi.org/10.1177/1611894420910903.
Said, Edward W. Orientalism. New York: Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group, 2014.
Saraswati, L. Ayu. Putih: Warna Kulit, Ras, dan Kecantikan di Indonesia Transnasional. Jakarta: Marjin Kiri, 2017.
Sulistianawati. “Pribumi Subaltern dalam Novel Lampuki Karya Arafat Nur (Kajian Poskolonial Gayatri C. Spivak).” Stilistika: Jurnal Pendidikan Bahasa dan Sastra 13, no. 2 (2020): 155–67. https://doi.org/10.30651/st.v13i2.4533.
Sutrisno, Mudji. Cultural Studies: Tantangan bagi Teori-Teori Besar Kebudayaan. Depok: Penerbit Koekoesan, 2011.
Young, Robert J C. Postcolonialism: A Very Short Introduction. OUP Oxford. Britania Raya: OUP Oxford, 2003.
The journal operates an Open Access policy under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License. Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.