Cognitive Behavioral Counseling Vs Family Counseling: Which Motivational Interviewing Is More Effective to Reduce Game Addiction in Adolescents?

  • Wiryo Nuryono Universitas Negeri Surabaya
Abstract views: 264 , PDF downloads: 135
Keywords: Family Counseling Motivational Interviewing, Game Addiction, Cognitive Behavioral Technique, Adolescents


Game addiction is a phenomenon that can interfere with adolescents' social relationships, leading to emotional, behavioral or mental disorders. The COVID-19 pandemic has contributed to an increase in game addiction behavior, largely due to feelings of loneliness. The consequences faced by adolescents as a result of game addiction can significantly impact their personal, social, learning, and career aspects. Therefore, it is crucial to employ appropriate counseling techniques to effectively reduce this addiction. Empirical and practical evidence showed that Family Counseling and Motivational Interviewing Techniques were effective in addressing game addiction. This study aimed to show the effectiveness of the Family Counseling Motivational Interviewing (FCMI) technique in reducing game addiction, as compared to Cognitive Behavioral Counseling (CBC). A quantitative approach was utilized, with a randomized controlled trial as the study design. The hypothesis was analyzed using the Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney Tests. A total of 90 adult students participated in this study and were classified into FCMI as the experimental group and the CBC as the control. The results showed that the FCMI technique was more effective in reducing game addiction than CBC. Significant improvements were also observed in the aspects of tolerance and mood modification, which experienced a notable decrease.


Download data is not yet available.


Bhide, A., Shah, P. S., & Acharya, G. (2018). A simplified guide to randomized controlled trials. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, 97(4), 380–387.

Bonnaire, C., & Phan, O. (2017). Relationships between parental attitudes, family functioning and Internet gaming disorder in adolescents attending school. Psychiatry Research, 255, 104–110.

Carlson, J., & Dermer, S. B. (Eds.). (2019). The SAGE encyclopedia of marriage, family, and couples counseling. SAGE reference.

Chun, J., Shim, H., & Kim, S. (2017). A Meta-Analysis of Treatment Interventions for Internet Addiction Among Korean Adolescents. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 20(4), 225–231.

Cohen, A., & Abedallah, M. (2021). Examining correlates of organizational citizenship behavior and counterproductive work behavior in a collectivist culture: The case of Arab teachers in Israel. Organization Management Journal, 18(3/4), 98–120.

Creswell, J. W. (2012). Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research (4th ed). Pearson.

Dieris-Hirche, J., Bottel, L., Pape, M., te Wildt, B. T., Wölfling, K., Henningsen, P., Timmesfeld, N., Neumann, A., Neusser, S., Beckers, R., & Herpertz, S. (2021). Effects of an online-based motivational intervention to reduce problematic internet use and promote treatment motivation in internet gaming disorder and internet use disorder (OMPRIS): Study protocol for a randomised controlled trial. BMJ Open, 11(8), e045840.

Emre, O. (2020). Effect of game addiction on reactive-proactive aggression in adolescents. Annals of Medical Research, 27(1), 85.

Findyartini, A., Greviana, N., Felaza, E., Faruqi, M., Zahratul Afifah, T., & Auliya Firdausy, M. (2022). Professional identity formation of medical students: A mixed-methods study in a hierarchical and collectivist culture. BMC Medical Education, 22(1), 443.

Fitri, E., Erwinda, L., & Ifdil, I. (2018). Konsep Adiksi Game Online dan Dampaknya terhadap Masalah Mental Emosional Remaja serta Peran Bimbingan dan Konseling. Jurnal Konseling dan Pendidikan, 6(3), 211–219.

Forrester, D., Westlake, D., Killian, M., Antonopoulou, V., McCann, M., Thurnham, A., Thomas, R., Waits, C., Whittaker, C., & Hutchison, D. (2018). A randomized controlled trial of training in Motivational Interviewing for child protection. Children and Youth Services Review, 88, 180–190.

Gerrard, B. A. (2023). School-Based Family Counseling With Refugees and Immigrants. Routledge.

Hambali, I. (2016). PERSPEKTIF “FAMILY SYSTEM INTERVENCY” UNTUK PROTEKSI KARAKTER KEBAJIKAN SISWA SMA. Jurnal Kajian Bimbingan dan Konseling, 1(2), 12–18.

Han, D. H., Kim, S. M., Lee, Y. S., & Renshaw, P. F. (2012). The effect of family therapy on the changes in the severity of on-line game play and brain activity in adolescents with on-line game addiction. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, 202(2), 126–131.

Han, T. sun, Cho, H., Sung, D., & Park, M.-H. (2022). A systematic review of the impact of COVID-19 on the game addiction of children and adolescents. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 13, 976601.

Handari, S., Nurihsan, J., & Nugroho, Y. E. (2022). Effectiveness Of Family Counseling Based Problem Solving To Improve Marriage Quality And Emotional Relationships (Intimacy). Journal of Positive School Psychology, 6(9), 2891–2905.

Hargreaves, E., & Elhawary, D. (2021). Children’s experiences of agency when learning English in the classroom of a collectivist culture. System, 98, 102476.

He, J., Pan, T., Nie, Y., Zheng, Y., & Chen, S. (2021). Behavioral modification decreases approach bias in young adults with internet gaming disorder. Addictive Behaviors, 113, 106686. aq3[1].png

Hidayah, N., & Ramli, M. (2017). Need of Cognitive-Behavior Counseling Model Based on Local Wisdom to Improve Meaning of Life of Madurese Culture Junior High School Students. Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Education and Training (ICET 2017). 3rd International Conference on Education and Training (ICET 2017), Batu City, Indonesia.


Hidayati, R., Hidayah, N., Universitas Negeri Malang, Indonesia, Ramli, M., Universitas Negeri Malang, Indonesia, Hambali, I., Universitas Negeri Malang, Indonesia, Triyono, T., & Universitas Negeri Malang, Indonesia. (2020). Efektifitas Cognitive Behaviour Therapy di Sekolah: Meta Analisis Review. Biblio Couns : Jurnal Kajian Konseling dan Pendidikan, 3(1), 31–40.

Jain, A., & Jain, P. (2021). Inter-relationship between gaming addiction, emotional intelligence, and psychological well-being of playerunknown’s battlegrounds and non-playerunknown’s battlegrounds online mobile game players: A comparative cross-sectional study. Acta Medica International, 8(2), 117.

Ji, Y., Yin, M. X. C., Zhang, A. Y., & Wong, D. F. K. (2022). Risk and protective factors of Internet gaming disorder among Chinese people: A meta-analysis. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 56(4), 332–346.

Karadi̇Rek, G., & Genç, K. Y. (2022). The Mediating Role of Individualistic – Collectivist Culture on the Relationship between Organizational Justice, Job Satisfaction, Organizational Loyalty, Organizational Performance and Organizational Citizenship Behaviour.

Karayağiz Muslu, G., & Aygun, O. (2020). An Analysis of Computer Game Addiction in Primary School Children and Its Affecting Factors. Journal of Addictions Nursing, 31(1), 30–38.

Karunanayake, D. D. K. S., Perera, R. A. A. R., & Vimukthi, N. D. U. (2020). Impact of Mobile Phone Game Addiction on Sri Lankan Teenagers: An Exploratory Study. Asian Journal of Education and Social Studies, 61–72.

Keser, H., Kavuk, M., & Numanoglu, G. (2016). The relationship between Cyber-Loafing and internet addiction. Cypriot Journal of Educational Sciences, 11(1), 37.

Keya, F. D., Rahman, M. M., Nur, M. T., & Pasa, M. K. (2020). Parenting and child’s (five years to eighteen years) digital game addiction: A qualitative study in North-Western part of Bangladesh. Computers in Human Behavior Reports, 2, 100031.

Kharisma, A. C., Fitryasari, R., & Rahmawati, P. D. (2020). Online Games Addiction and the Decline in Sleep Quality of College Student Gamers in the Online Game Communities in Surabaya, Indonesia. 24(7).

King, D. L., Delfabbro, P. H., Wu, A. M. S., Doh, Y. Y., Kuss, D. J., Pallesen, S., Mentzoni, R., Carragher, N., & Sakuma, H. (2017). Treatment of Internet gaming disorder: An international systematic review and CONSORT evaluation. Clinical Psychology Review, 54, 123–133.

Király, O., Potenza, M. N., & Demetrovics, Z. (2022). Gaming disorder: Current research directions. Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, 47, 101204.

Kochuchakkalackal, G. K. (2020). Efficacy of Acceptance and Cognitive Restructuring Intervention Program (ACRIP) on the Symptoms of Internet Gaming Disorder and Psychological Well-Being of Adolescents. IAFOR Journal of Psychology & the Behavioral Sciences, 5(2), 63–76.

Kouimtsidis, C., Salazar, C., & Houghton, B. (2021). Motivational Interviewing, Behaviour Change in Addiction Treatment. In N. el-Guebaly, G. Carrà, M. Galanter, & A. M. Baldacchino (Eds.), Textbook of Addiction Treatment: International Perspectives (pp. 349–363). Springer International Publishing.

Krisnanda, V. D., Ramli, M., & Hidayah, N. (2022). Konseling Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) untuk Mengembangkan Self-love Penyintas Trauma Kekerasan Dalam Rumah Tangga (KDRT). Counsellia: Jurnal Bimbingan dan Konseling, 12(2), 116.

Kucukkaragoz, H. (2020). Family environment and emotional quotient in primary school 3rd grade students. Cypriot Journal of Educational Sciences, 15(2), 336–348.

Küçükkaragöz, H., & Karakayoun, K. (2020). Exploring the relationship between 8th graders’ assertiveness levels and family functions. Cypriot Journal of Educational Sciences, 15(5), 1030–1052.

Lemmens, J. S., Valkenburg, P. M., & Peter, J. (2009). Development and Validation of a Game Addiction Scale for Adolescents. Media Psychology, 12(1), 77–95.

Long, J., Liu, T., Liu, Y., Hao, W., Maurage, P., & Billieux, J. (2018). Prevalence and Correlates of Problematic Online Gaming: A Systematic Review of the Evidence Published in Chinese. Current Addiction Reports, 5(3), 359–371.

Lundahl, B. W., Kunz, C., Brownell, C., Tollefson, D., & Burke, B. L. (2010). A Meta-Analysis of Motivational Interviewing: Twenty-Five Years of Empirical Studies. Research on Social Work Practice, 20(2), 137–160.

Mahamid, F., & Bdier, D. (2021). Aggressiveness and life satisfaction as predictors for video game addiction among Palestinian adolescents. Journal of Concurrent Disorders, 3(2).

Maroma, F. O., Karega, M., & Oteyo, J. S. (2019). Relationship between depression and pathological internet use among university students. Cypriot Journal of Educational Sciences, 14(2), 201–207.

Niu, G., Jin, S., Xu, F., Lin, S., Zhou, Z., & Longobardi, C. (2022). Relational Victimization and Video Game Addiction among Female College Students during COVID-19 Pandemic: The Roles of Social Anxiety and Parasocial Relationship. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19(24), 16909.

Nugraha, Y. P., Awalya, A., & Mulawarman, M. (2021). Predicting Video Game Addiction: The Effects of Composite Regulatory Focus and Interpersonal Competence Among Indonesian Teenagers During COVID-19 Pandemic. Islamic Guidance and Counseling Journal, 4(1), 66–77.


Nuryono, W., Christiana, E., & Purwoko, B. (2023a). PENDEKATAN KONSELING KELUARGA UNTUK MENGURANGI ADIKSI GAME ONLINE. Jurnal Realita Bimbingan dan Konseling (JRbk), 8(1), 1853–1861.

Nuryono, W., Christiana, E., & Purwoko, B. (2023b). Teknik Motivational Interviewing Untuk Mengurangi Adiksi Game Online. Jurnal Consulenza : Jurnal Bimbingan Konseling dan Psikologi, 6(1), 109–119.

Pawlikowska, A., Szuster, E., Kostrzewska, P., Mandera, A., Biernikiewicz, M., Sobieszczańska, M., Rożek-Piechura, K., Markiewicz, M., Rusiecka, A., & Kałka, D. (2022). Internet Addiction and Polish Women’s Sexual Functioning: The Role of Social Media, Online Pornography, and Game Use during the COVID-19 Pandemic—Online Surveys Based on FSFI and BSMAS Questionnaires. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19(13), 8193.

Petry, N. M., Rehbein, F., Ko, C.-H., & O’Brien, C. P. (2015). Internet Gaming Disorder in the DSM-5. Current Psychiatry Reports, 17(9), 72.

Prasetiawan, H., Barida, M., Handaka, I. B., Widyastuti, D. A., & Agungbudiprabowo. (2023). Counselor Strategies to Reduce Online Gaming Addiction through Creative Cognitive Behavior Counseling. Pegem Journal of Education and Instruction, 13(02).

Ramli, ‘Izzat S. Mohd, Maat, S. M., & Khalid, F. (2023). Digital Game-based Learning and Learning Analytics in Mathematics. Pegem Journal of Education and Instruction, 13(1).

Sa'idah, I. (2019). Teori dan Teknik Konseling.

Sa'idah, I., Atmoko, A., & Muslihati, M. (2021). Aspirasi Karier Generasi Milenial. Edu Consilium: Jurnal Bimbingan dan Konseling Pendidikan Islam, 2(1), 62-89.

Sabarudin, Masril, Edar, H., & Adolt, S. (2022). An Approach to Family Counseling. 1(1), 23–31.

Şahin, M., Keskin, S., & Yurdugül, H. (2019). Impact of Family Support and Perception of Loneliness on Game Addiction Analysis of a Mediation and Moderation: International Journal of Game-Based Learning, 9(4), 15–30.

Sayi, A. K., & Şahin, F. (2021). Examination of Gifted Students’ Internet / Game Addiction and School Social Behaviors. Pegem Journal of Education and Instruction, 11(4), 33–43.

Schoneveld, E. A., Wols, A., Lichtwarck-Aschoff, A., Otten, R., & Granic, I. (2020). Mental Health Outcomes of an Applied Game for Children with Elevated Anxiety Symptoms: A Randomized Controlled Non-inferiority Trial. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 29(8), 2169–2185.

Şenol, Y., Şenol, F. B., & Can Yaşar, M. (2023). Digital game addiction of preschool children in the Covid-19 pandemic: Social emotional development and parental guidance. Current Psychology.

Soledad Fabito, B., O. Trillanes, A., D. Bermudez, J. R., Q. Ramirez, E., & H. Guadaña, R. R. (2020). Mediating Flow Theory in PC Game Addiction and Cyberbullying: A Quantitative Study. 2020 The 4th International Conference on E-Society, E-Education and E-Technology, 140–144.

Stavropoulos, V., Frost, T. M. J., Brown, T., Gill, P., Footitt, T. A., & Kannis-Dymand, L. (2021). Internet gaming disorder behaviours: A preliminary exploration of individualism and collectivism profiles. BMC Psychiatry, 21(1), 262.

Stevens, M. W. R., King, D. L., Dorstyn, D., & Delfabbro, P. H. (2019). Cognitive–behavioral therapy for Internet gaming disorder: A systematic review and meta‐analysis. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 26(2), 191–203.

Suranata, K., Atmoko, A., & Hidayah, N. (2017). Enhancing Students’ Resilience: Comparing The Effect of Cognitive-Behavior And Strengths-Based Counseling. Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Innovative Research Across Disciplines (ICIRAD 2017). 2nd International Conference on Innovative Research Across Disciplines (ICIRAD 2017), Denpasar, Bali-Indonesia.

Torres-Rodríguez, A., Griffiths, M. D., Carbonell, X., & Oberst, U. (2018). Treatment efficacy of a specialized psychotherapy program for Internet Gaming Disorder. Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 7(4), 939–952.

Wahyuningsih, R., Hanurawan, F., & Ramli, R. (2020). Peran Keluarga pada Perkembangan Moral Siswa SD di Lingkungan Eks Lokalisasi. Jurnal Pendidikan: Teori, Penelitian, dan Pengembangan, 5(5), 587.

Wang, J.-L., Sheng, J.-R., & Wang, H.-Z. (2019). The Association Between Mobile Game Addiction and Depression, Social Anxiety, and Loneliness. Frontiers in Public Health, 7, 247.

Wang, Y. (2022). The Impact of Interparental Conflicts on Online Game Addiction Symptomatology: The Mediating Roles of the Parent-Adolescent Relationship and Loneliness in Adolescents. Psychological Reports, 125(5), 2337–2356.

Wölfling, K., Müller, K. W., Dreier, M., Ruckes, C., Deuster, O., Batra, A., Mann, K., Musalek, M., Schuster, A., Lemenager, T., Hanke, S., & Beutel, M. E. (2019). Efficacy of Short-term Treatment of Internet and Computer Game Addiction: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Psychiatry, 76(10), 1018.

Yayman, E., & Bilgin, O. (2020). Relationship between social media addiction, game addiction and family functions. International Journal of Evaluation and Research in Education (IJERE), 9(4), 979.

Yildirim, A. E. S. (2018). Examination of views and suggestions about participation of families of children with special needs in individualised education programme.

Yilmaz, B., & Ozkan, Y. (2022). The Effects of Perceived Social Support, Family Climate, and Adult Attachment Styles on Digital Game Addiction in Esports Players. ADDICTA: The Turkish Journal on Addictions, 9(3), 334–342.

Zabor, E. C., Kaizer, A. M., & Hobbs, B. P. (2020). Randomized Controlled Trials. Chest, 158(1), S79–S87.

Zajac, K., Ginley, M. K., & Chang, R. (2020). Treatments of internet gaming disorder: A systematic review of the evidence. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics, 20(1), 85–93.

Zandi Payam, A., & Mirzaeidoostan, Z. (2019). Online Game Addiction Relationship With Cognitive Distortion, Parenting Style, and Narcissistic Personality Traits in Students. Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology, 72–83.

Zhou, X., & Xing, J. (2021). The Relationship between College Students’ Online Game Addiction, Family Function and Self-Control. Health, 13(09), 910–919.